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Cairo's Historic Cemetery of al-Suyuti Conflicting Claims.

Mosque of Masih Pasha

Currently functioning as a mosque and called Musabbah not Masih, this prayer space and minaret is part of a much larger structure that was built by the Ottoman Governor Masih Pasha for an obscure shaykh who resided in the cemetery called Nur al-Din al-Qarafi. The waqfiyya does not mention that Masih built a mosque, therefore it is unclear what the function of the current prayer space was. Hamza claims that it was part of the ribat.

In 983/1575 he attached a Sufi residence (ribat) with a charitable structure for dispensation of water and schooling of orphans (sabil-kuttab), drinking trough for animals (hawd), ablution area, cistern and well to the Sufi establishment (takiyya) of al-Qarafi immediately north of the Qusun complex and facing the area of ‘Arab Yasar. While the ribat was to be used as a residence for the Sufis, a riwaq above it was the residence of Shaykh Shihab al-Din, Nur al-Din's son and the imam of the complex. Opposite the riba’, close to al-Ghuri Madrasa in the north, a rab’, also described in the waqfiyya as a bayt kabli, was to function as the residence of Nur al-Din, the nazir of the waqf. Masih's generous endowments were therefore to be administered by the shaykh and his family after him. Priority for the salaried positions specified in the waqf was given to the Qarafí family, then to the residents of the takiyya, then to the residents (ahl) of al-Qarafa al-Sughra. (Endowment deed: Awqaf 2836).

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Foundation History:

The current structure of Masih Pasha was built east of the pre-existing takiyya of Nur al-Din al-Qarafi (referred to once as a madrasa in the waqfiyya, but mostly as takiyya) and as an extension to it. It consisted of a block adjacent to the takiyya that included a ribat (the mosque), a sabil with a maktab above it and incorporating a small mabit for the maktab teacher, a sahrij servicing this structure . This was in addition to a mathara, a tabaqa with a small makhzan on the ground floor, two other small tabaqas on the upper floor and a bigger riwaq for the shaykh. The waqfiyya, which is dated 988/1580, refers to the minaret that had not yet been built. It then describes a second block across the street opposite al Ghuri Mosque and adjacent to the wall of Qaramaydan, which it refers to as al-Maydan al-Akhdar. That block is called a rab’ and it consists of nine riwaqs organized around a central courtyard or fasaha. The waqfiyya describes the bigger, main riwaq in detail, but only mentions the other eight as a number. The rab’ also contained five shops and four hasils overlooking the street.

Masih Pasha was an Ottoman governor to Egypt (r. 982-8/1575-80), known for his strict policies that could verge on bloodthirsty cruelty, but also for his uprightness and piety. It is not clear when Nur al-Din was born or when he died, but at the time of construction of the Masih establishment, he had a son who was an established shaykh and imam, mu’addib al-aytam and mubashir of the Masih's establishment (Shihab al-Din) and a grandson (Shams) who was old enough to be appointed as assistant to his father (as shahid al-waqf) in the waqf. The Masih's establishment was built in 983/1575, and it was endowed, along with the revenue generating land and properties, to the care of Masih and his progeny unconditionally.  Priority for the salaried positions specified in the waqf was given to the Qarafi family, then to the residents of the takiyya, then to the residents (ahl) of al-Qarafa al-Sughra.

The waqf employed a nazir (Nur al-Din al-Qarafi), imam (his son Shihab) who was also employed as the maktab’s mu’addib atfal, mubashir al-waqf , 2 mu’adhdhins, a general porter (Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Quni, a sibt of Nur al-Din) who performed the jobs of muzammilati, farrash, bawwab and waqqad, a miqati, 30 qari’s to recite the 30 sections of the Qur’an over the month in the ribat or the takiyya, then another 40 qari’s also for morning Qur’an recital and as students of hadith during the three months of Rajab, Sha’ban and Ramadan, then another 15 qari’s for wirds and tasbih in the morning and evening, 6 for Friday khatmas in the shrine of al-Suyuti, 2 men in charge of the distribution and collection of the books for the religious readings, an assistant mu’addib aytam (arif), a shahid waqf, a katib ghayba, (Shams al-Din son of Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi), shadd al-waqfkhadim al-mathara who cleans it, someone who fills the hanafiyyas and khala’s with grey (malih) water and finally a  kannas and someone to spray water around the premises.  It also allows funding for expenditure on the 50 orphans of the maktab and for food and clothing for the residents of the complex, and for tools and supplies for the maintenance of the complex. Excess revenue goes for charity or construction works at the discretion of the nazir.



The mosque is mainly composed of a prayer hall preceded by an entrance vestibule with two spaces annexed to it. The main block contains the entrance, which lies in the eastern-most section of the northern street façade. The door, which is framed by a recessed panel crowned by a tri-lobed stalactite hood, leads into an entrance vestibule in which a door immediately to the left opens onto the prayer hall which is divided into a prayer space and a durqa’a. The arcaded prayer space, which is roofed with wooden beams in which a wooden shukhshaykha is centrally placed, is preceded by an oblong durqa’a occupying one-third of the space and running parallel to the vestibule. A door at the bottom of the vestibule leads onto a room that is also accessible from the durqa’a. The minaret, which is immediately adjacent to the entrance block, juts slightly off the line of the main façade. Its staircase is accessed via a door located in the northern end of the durqa’a. While the prayer hall, vestibule, and annexed room are arranged within a space that is almost square-shaped, a secondary space east of this square has a street façade that continues the fabric of the main block but shows signs in the fabric of its eastern and southern walls that it originally extended further in those directions. Furthermore, an arched entrance west of the block leads onto the remains of what must have been a covered passageway that seems to have been part of the complex. It can be assumed that this structure is the ribat and that the older takiyya which stood west of the structure is no longer extant, nor is the sabil-kuttab complex which stood.

Note: the mihrab orientation does not follow the normal south orientation of qarafa mihrabs


Later History:

By the end of the 19th century, it is listed in the mosque section of Mubarak’s Khitat with its foundation ascribed to Masih Pasha and its location as ‘Arab Yasar. Mubarak, following Nuzhat al-Nazirin describes Masih as a follower of Nur al-Din al-Qarafi and mentions that he built this mosque and endowed it and put the endowment under the control of Nur al-Din and his progeny. The mosque was in functioning order during the lifetime of Mubarak and it received from the Ruznamja 2200 qirsh annually handed to its Nazir ‘Ali Nur al-Din. According to Mubarak, it housed the grave of Nur al-Din (which was marked by a wooden maqsura). A second  grave said to be that of Masih Pasha cannot be his, because he was not buried in Egypt. 

The mosque was listed as a monument in decree no. 118 in 1891. Unfortunately, only the minaret and the façade were registered. A request from the mosque’s nazir, Sir Ibrahim Ali Nour el-Din (sic.) in 1906 to dig in the prayer hall to bring to the light of day the antiquities buried within was denied by the Comité de Conservation but it indicates that the Qarafi family was still involved in running the establishment. The first two years of the 1910s witnessed a legal wrangle between the Comité and ‘Abd al-Baqi Hasan who modified the space behind the qibla wall transforming it into his residence. Minor repairs to the mosque in the next few years were inadequate, and the ceiling beams collapsed in 1916. A request to reuse the kuttab (no longer extant) as a library was denied in 1917, because it was in a hazardous condition. The mosque state of disuse encouraged a former caretaker, Amina ‘Umar Mahmud to live there in the 1930s. It seems she was evicted but the Comité, although it continued to order minor repairs to the façade, refused to take responsibility for the restoration of the interior which it deemed the Waqf’s charge.

A series of attempted thefts in the 1940s must have encouraged a second listing of the monument in 1951 (published in issue no. 115 of al-Waqa’i’ al-Misriyya) which probably included the whole building. The 1950s – 1960s documents refer to plans to carry out more comprehensive restoration works but it seems they were not implemented. A chain of correspondence referring to the difficulty in restoring a “house with the sabil” indicates that the sabil was still extant, albeit encroached on and used as a residence. In fact, in 1956, an attempt at exchanging this piece of property with another waqf (istibdal) was thwarted by the Comité, because it was considered an integral part of the monument. In the late 1960s, the authorities continue to push for the restoration of this monument, especially that it was now on the newly established road leading up to the new city of al-Muqattam one of the pet projects of the 1952 Revolution. Yet no work was done and the building continued to deteriorate. Its sabil-kuttab block disappeared, possibly as part of the road widening works connected to the establishment of the Sayyida ‘A’isha Bridge in the 1970s. It was finally restored in the 1980s-1990s. Its rear walls were rebuilt, and its ceilings were renewed.  By then so most of the original fabric had been lost, and the establishment has shrunk into the mosque and minaret with remains of a gate to the west and a characterless space behind the qibla wall. Furthermore, the construction of the Sayyida A’isha Flyover negated the square, transforming it into the maze of traffic it is today.

The mosque is currently under the supervision of the Awqaf and is popular as a neighbourhood mosque. It is not a popular tourist destination, in fact, according to its shaykh, it is almost never visited by tourists. This is partially due to its uninviting location in the highly polluted and congested Sayyida A’isha Square and also to the fact that the mosque community is highly conservative which, while not denying access to the place, do not make the cultural tourist (whether local or foreign) feel welcome.

Supplementary material

  1. Detailed discussion of the architectural spaces as described in the waqfiyya





Sabil [1] with 3 façades, the main one overlooking the street leading to Bab al-Qarafa al-Sughra. All 3 preceded by steps going up to the window grilles.

An underground sahrij [2]

A ribat [3] mubarak with a madfan  ma’qud

Maktab [4] above the sabil



Mathara [5] west by north (gharbi mimma yali al-bahri)

Maskans & manafi on east, west and bahri façades

East façade has masabb al-sahrij, one of the two side grilles of the sabil and above them the windows of the khulwa and the 2 tabaqas

West façade has 4 arched doors, the first one leading to the mathara

The mathara: on entering we find 3 doors leading to 4 kursi khala’s.



In the middle there is a central fasqiyya with a hanafiyya with 9 taps.

The second door in the west façade leads to the turba previously called al-Usayba’ati (?), now called after the late Muhammad al-Muhsin – it has now been included within the walls of this building.

The third door leads to a ground floor makhzan with a tabaqa above it which has windows overlooking the main street and the zuqaq between it and the madrasa of Nur al-Din ‘Ali al-Ansari al-Qarafi.


The fourth and biggest door is arched and built of carved stone, and above it is a big wooden window grille. A single door leaf opens onto a small (latifa) dirkah. To the right as one entrance is a door leading to a majaz leading to the mathara. Opposite this door across the dirkah (to the left as one enters) is a murabba’ door leading to a fasaha latifa then to another rectangular  door leading to the ribat (written rabat)


At the bottom of the majaz there is a door that leads to the sahrij access well (a marble kharaza above it) and next to it is the hawd in which the water for the sabil is stored after it is raised.

To the (left?) as one enters and moves towards the sahrij is a door to the sabil.

In it (the sabil?) are 4 kutubiyyas  opposite each other all decorated with coloured paint, a door, also painted leading to a khulwa.



The door that leads to the majaz (location described as a bi-sadr al-sabil) also leads to a staircase. 3 steps ascend to a half-space leading to 2 flights of stairs. The first (to the right) leads to a small tabaqa with a kursi khala’ and the window that tops the above-mentioned entrance door. The left one leads to a rectangular door opening onto a tabaqa latifa with 4 manwar shubbaks and with a khart darabzin that opens onto the sahrij door letting light into the space.



In sadr al-tabaqa there are 4 taqas that overlook the covered zuqaq.

The left staircase ascends again to lead to a door on the right and the rest of the majaz leads to a mabit with 4 similar taqas (mutatabiqa) overlooking the zuqaq with a sidilla with 1 taqa and a shubbak and 4 manwars overlooking the madrasa of Umm al-marhum al-Sultan Hasan. This mabit is for mu’addib al-aytam. Then from there to the maktab that is above the sabil whose 3 façades are faced with a wooden darabzin.



The maktab has wooden kutubiyyas and on the bigger eastern side there are 2 white marble columns carrying arches that in turn carry the decorated wooden ceiling with a tiraz frieze that includes the name of the founder and the foundation date. The 3 façades are crowned with a protruding eave (rafraf) decorated with a tiraz band and carried on kibash (cantilevers).


Also endowed to the space are 3 curtains (sata’ir) of coloured cloth. The staircase to the right mentioned above ascends to a majaz. On entering one finds to the left a door that leads to a place that has yet to be built that will be composed of a majaz with a matbakh and kursi khala’.


Then the majaz (1st one?) turns to the right and leads to a small (latifa) saha with a rectangular 1 leaf door that leads to a riwaq with an iwan and a durqa’a tiled with stone for the mashyakha. The limits (hudud) of this whole place are as follows:

Qibli: Turba of late Umm al-Sultan Hasan also called al-Sultaniyya

Bahri: al-Shari’ al-A’zam between the ‘imara and the rab’ yet to be mentioned.



And this hadd has the 3 sabil grilles and the maktab façades above them then the shubbaks of the 2 khulwas and the riwaq

East: The zuqaq between the this block and the house known as al-‘Abd and the turba known as (al-Badidi?) that leads to the above mentioned Turba Sultaniyya and al-hawd al-a’waj (crooked hawd?) that is there. It has one of the sabil grilles, and the 2 tabaqas above and 1 of the maktab facades.

West: The zuqaq between the block and the madrasa of al-Shaykh Nur al-Din,



All the rab’ that contains 11 qantaras built with carved stone within which there are 5 hanuts and 4 hasils (the difference seems that the hanuts are faced with a railing (darabzin) while the hasils have doors with an iron window grille above . The last hasil is the biggest and it has a grille that faces the mosque of the late Sultan al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghuri.



… (the 10th qantara) is the door leading to the rab’. 2 steps lead to a 1 leaf rectangular door with a small grill above then to a stone staircase ascending to a dihliz with 4 shubbaks to the right there are 9 doors. The first rectangular 1 leaf door leads to a small (latifa) fasaha.


To the right one finds a door that will be mentioned later and in sadr al-fasaha there is a one leaf door leading to a space with a kursi khala’ on the left then to a riwaq with an iwan and a small durqa’a. In sadr al-iwan there are taqas overlooking the street ya’luha shubbak. The iwan has a small sidilla with 2 taqas overlooking the street and a shubbak (raj’i?) with 2 wooden leafs on a mijrah (sliding?) and next to it is a 1 leaf door leading to a bedroom (khizana nawmiyya) .



The door mentioned above (26) leads to a stone staircase that ascends to a 1 leaf rectangular door leading to a tabaqa  which in turn has a staircase to the left as one enters leading to the roof (sath). The tabaqa also leads to a 1 leaf rectangular door leading to a small tabaqa with 4 taqas overlooking the street and in sadriha are 2 taqas above the 1st qantara. The other 8 doors referred to above all lead to riwaqs with their manafi’, marafiq, huquq and tawabi’ which include khulwas and makhazin and majazat and masakin.


The 4 hudud are as follows:

Qibli: al-Shari’ al-A’zam between this block and the madrasa of Nur al-Din al-Qarafi and the the sabil and maktab and it contains the matall of the taqas of the riwaqs.

Bahri: The wall (siyaj) of al-Maydan al-Akhdar

East: The street from al-Shari’ al-A’zam to al-Maydan al-Akhdar and to the Qal’a and it has the raj’i (window) in al-bayt al-kabir and the taqas of the bayt (mabit?) adjacent (mujawir) to it.



West: partially to the section of al-Shari’ al-A’zam leading to Suq al-Qarafa al-Sughra, and it has the matall of the raji’i shubbak above the rab’ door and the taqas of the tabaqa above al-raji’i. It also ends with the turba of the late Shaykh Ibrahim al-Siraki.



2. Summary of spaces included at the end of the waqfiyya section on endowed agricultural lands




functional components






Sabil al-ma’ al-‘adhb li-‘umum al-marrin wa’l-waridin wa’l-qatinin









For use of muzammilati  and to store his tools?




To be filled with fresh water once a year or more if needed. For use of sabil.




For praying for use of faqirs





For imam  to stand in and lead prayer




Manar to be built by waqif or by nazir from ri’

For mu’adhdhins to climb up and call for prayer or  for tasbih or tahlil or tanhid




For performers of ablution (mutawaddiyin)



Bi’r (a) to be added

For the above mentioned mathara and for the mathara of the takiyya of Nur al-Din al-Qarafi



Hawd dawab to be added





For the use of the orphans, their mu’addib and their ‘arif during lesson times




As residence (sukna) for Shihab al-Din b. Nur al-Din al-Qarafi, the imam of the ribat, then his progeny



Bayts above mathara & western wall

As residence for 1 person working as farrash, bawwab, waqqad & muzammilati (Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Quni son of the sibt of Nur al-Din) then his progeny



Bayt next to maktab

As residence for mu’addib al-atfal



Rooms and khulwas adjacent to sabil

As residence at discretion of nazir to use as he sees fit


BLOCK II: Al-bayt al-kabir facing the madrasa of al-Guri and across the street from the sabil-kuttab and the makan mujawir to it that is to serve as a residence for Shaykh Nur al-Din

Then there is a break in the flow – there may be some pages missing in which the spaces of block II are referred to


3. Salaries and expenses in waqfiyya










Shihab al-Din b. Nur al-din al-Qarafi


30 silver nisfs/month




Nur al-Din al-Qarafi (then son Shihab then progeny)

Shaykh – to be shaykh of qari’s of juz’s & an’am – to recite hadith every morning during the months of Rajab, Sha’ban & Ramadan before the recital of Surat al-An’am.

10 & 2/3 silver nisf daily




2 persons

To perform the adhan from above the roof of the sabil or the takiyya until the minaret is built – also tahlil, tasbih, tajhid & tabligh after the imam during salah, dhikr, khitama etc.

121 nisfs /month (to be divided between them) – also details of raises & bonuses for these and below





To determine prayer times

45 nisfs/month




30 persons

To read with the shaykh 30 juz’s daily after ‘asr prayer (1 khatma daily) in the ribat or the takiyya then to end with surat al-ikhlasx12 then 2 mu’udhas then fatiha then khawatim al-Baqara. Thawab dedicated to prophet, etc. then sultan then masih

900 nisfs/month




40 persons

To read with the shaykh Surat al-An’am (and the juz’s??) every morning in the ribat or the takiyya and to come to listen to the shaykh’s readings of the hadith during the 3 months Rajab, Sha’ban & Ramadan & rnd the sitting with al-Ikhlas 12 times,  then  the 3 ma’uthas, then al-Fatiha and also what was explained of the juz’s? (not clear)

1189 nisfs/month




15 persons

Reciting wirds & tasbih in the morning and evening, 7 at one time and 8 at another

252 nisfs/month




6 persons

To read a khatma every Friday in maqam ‘Abd al-Rahman Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti and  finish it with asma’ Allah al-Husna and salah on the prophet and present the thawab to Suyuti and those buried in his jiwar and those who had been of benefit to the place and their relatives

150 nisf/month




1 person

In charge of distributing the juz’s and collecting them at ‘asr and in charge of the mushaf & sijjada of the shaykh

30 nisf/month




1 person

In charge of distributing the juz’s and collecting them in the morning to qurra’ al-an’am and in charge of the mushaf & sijjada of the shaykh

30 nisf/month



Mu’addib al-Aytam

Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi


60 nisf/month + kiswa at ramadan

169- 171


Assistant (‘arif?) to XI

1 person

To teach them to read and write (discipline them, teach calligraphy, spelling, be with them at all times, etc.) – also recite with the children daily with al-Ikhlas 12 times,  then  the 3 ma’uthas, then al-Fatiha and present the thawab to the prophet, etc. as mentioned above

30 nisf/month + kiswa at ramadan





To memorise the quran, learn to read and write – to be there daily except Thursday and Friday from sunrise to before ‘asr prayer + the khatmas

252 nisf/month



Mubashir al-waqf

Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi

To supervise the usul (assets) of the waqf and its expenditure including construction

60 nisf/month



Shahid al-Waqf

Shams al-Din son of Shihab al-Din

To assist the mubashir in his tasks

45 nisf/month



Katib ghayba

1 person

Keep a register of the beneficiaries and of attendance and present it to mubashir to pay salaries

60 nisf/month



Sadd (?) al-waqf

1 person

To collect revenue from waqf endowments

60 nisf/month




Shams al-Din Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Quni son of the sibt of Nur al-Din

To fill basins with water and give it to people daily  zuhr to maghrib and on  Fridays from morning to maghrib

60 nisf/month



Bawwab, farrash & waqqad

Shams al-Din Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Quni son of the sibt of Nur al-Din

Open & close the door of the ribat & guard its furnishings and tools & light its lamps & the lamps of the minaret & clean it (when it is built)

45 nisf/month

183- 4



Bawwab given every month necessary funds to buy qullas, kuzs, sponge, brooms, ropes, pails, twine? (bakar) for the fulfillment of his duties

What the nazir sees fit



Khadim al-mathara


To clean the latrines

15 nisf/month



Mathara attendant  2


To fill the basins and latrines with water suitable for ablution (malih – not drinking water)

30 nisf/month





To sweep around the sabil, takiyya and rab’ and ribat  - every day, morning and evening

15 nisf/month



Water sprinkler


To spray water around the sabil, takiyya and rab’ and ribat  - every day, morning and evening

30 nisf/month



Takiyya faqirs

to buy (?) for the faqirs living in the takiyya

40 nisf/month

188- 9


Priority to ribat & takiyya residents

Food, sweets and sadaqa  to be distributed during the khatmas on ‘ashura’, mawlid al-nabi, 1st Friday of Rajab, nisf Sha’ban, the 2 eves of the ‘Id, the eve of ra’s al-sanna (? – laylat akhir kull ‘am)

What the nazir sees fit



Tawsi’a for mustahiqqin & qatinin

Alms for the 2 ‘ids  (at nazir’s discretion  - udhiya, etc.)

What the nazir sees fit



Olive oil for the lamps

30 nisf/month



Olive oil for Ramadan & the illumination nights mentioned in p. 188-9 for the establishment, the takiyya and Maqam al-Suyuti

What the nazir sees fit


Excess revenue goes for charity at the discretion of the nazir, or for purchase of property to be added to the endowment or to add more wazifas, decision of Nur, then Shihab, then progeny. If it is not possible to fund one of the above-mentioned jihas, the same procedure is followed.



Nazr & tahadduth to Nur, then Shihab, then progeny, then takiyy nazir,  etc.


If revenue is insufficient, priority goes to renovation (maramma), then to filling the sahrij and the sabil, then to muzammilati salary, then to nazir salary, then to the rest of the wazifas – imam, mu’adhdhins, miqati, mubashir, shahid, muta’ahhid al-kuttab, shadd, mu’addib al-aytam, ‘arif al-aytam, then the religious activities in all buildings, then the alms, then the rest (all at nazir discretion)


Mushaf & 30 quran juz’s & 40 an’am juz’s waqf for readings at times specified above


Residence in takiyya or ribat only after nazir permission and for a maximum of 30 days


Nur al-Din and successors  (with help of mubashir and katib) in absolute control of waqf and is not to be supervised by qadi or daftardar, etc.


Priority to jobs where the deceased has not progeny to inherit goes to Nur al-din’s family, then takiyya residents, then residents of al-Qarafa al-Sughra and al-Mujawirin.


The legal inheritor of a wazifa (of the Qarafi family) could pass it on to who he sees fit of the family (men or women)  if he himself holds a wazifa that prevents him from taking on this one.


If an employee travels for hajj or to visit a relative, etc. he continues to be paid his salary


Nazir can fire employees if they are incompetent, absent for more than a month without leave,  etc.


Position can be kept for a minor if his father dies – held temporarily by a family member until he comes of age


Employees have to attend to their tasks regularly but could outsource the job to another person for a max of 3 non-consecutive days/week


Nazir can make decisions about building new structures, purchase of property, adding positions, etc. at his discretion


Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, Egypt’s Adjustment to Ottoman Rule (London, New York & Koln, 1991), pp. 244-8

Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe, Fascicules I  to XXXX (French) + Kurrasa 41 (Arabic), Exercices 1882-3 to 1946-53 (French) + 1954-6 (Arabic). (Cairo, 1892-1963)[Online:], 1891, p. 52; 1912, p. 23; 1930-2, p. 178; 1933-5, pp. 25, 37; 1935-40, pp. 223, 266

Rizq, Asim.  Atlas al-‘imara al-islamiya wa-al-qibṭiya bil-qahira (Cairo, 2003),

Warner, Nicholas. The Monuments of Historic Cairo: A Map and Descriptive Catalogue (AUC Press, 2005), p. 113, map 1 & 2

Bakri Kawakib 20v:

Mar’i b. Yusuf al-Karmi, Nuzhat al-nazirin fi tarikh man waliya misr min al-khalafa’ wa’l-salatin (1033H/1623AD); ed. Amira Dabasa (unpublished thesis, University of Jordan), p. 275

(Comité 1907, pp. 70-1). (Comité 1915-9, p. 695, 801; 1927-9, p. 187).

Mubarak, ‘Ali. Al-khitat al-tawfiqiyya al-jadida li-Misr wa’l-Qahira, (Bulaq, 1305H), Vol. V, p.  115.